Medium Density Fiberboard - an overview (2023)

MDF fibers are blended with a resin (most often an amine resin), dried and formed into a mat through use of pneumatic-mechanical techniques.

From: Machining Technology for Composite Materials, 2012

Related terms:

Choosing Materials and Products

Sam Kubba Ph.D., LEED AP, in Green Construction Project Management and Cost Oversight, 2010

5 Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF)

MDF is a composite wood product traditionally formed by breaking down softwood into wood fibers, often in a defibrator, combining it with wax and a synthetic resin binder such as urea formaldehyde resins (UF) or other suitable bonding system, and forming panels by applying high temperature and pressure. Additives may be introduced during manufacturing to impart additional characteristics. But all MDF is not the same and will vary in texture, density, color, etc. depending on the material it is made of. Today many MDF boards are made from a variety of materials. These include other woods, scrap, recycled paper, bamboo, carbon fibers and polymers, steel, glass, forest thinning, and sawmill off-cuts.

Many manufacturers are being pressured to come up with greener products and have now started testing and using non-toxic binders. New raw materials are being introduced such as straw and bamboo which are becoming popular fibers because they are a fast growing renewable resource. Although MDF is highly toxic to manufacture, it does not emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in use. Trim waste is significantly reduced when using MDF compared to other substrates. Stability and strength are important assets of MDF, which can be machined into complex patterns that require precise tolerances.

Many of MDF's qualities make it an ideal replacement for plywood or particle board. The product is dense, flat, stiff, has no knots, and is easily machined. It consists of fine particles and provides dimensional stability without a predominant grain as is the case with wood. Unlike most plywoods, MDF contains no voids, and will deliver sharp edges with no tearout. MDF is well damped acoustically, thus making it a suitable material for speaker enclosures. MDF is widely used in the manufacturing of furniture, kitchen cabinets, moldings, millwork, door parts, and laminate flooring. Medium density fiberboard MDF panels are manufactured with a variety of physical properties and dimensions, providing the opportunity to design the end product with the specific MDF characteristics and density needed.

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Wood: Nonstructural Panel Processes

F.A. Kamke, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2001

3 MDF Processing

There are many similarities between the manufacture of MDF and particleboard. Indeed, these products are used for many of the same products. The major process differences occur in the fiber preparation, drying, and blending operations (Fig. 2). See Sect. 2 for a description of the pressing and postpressing operations.

Medium Density Fiberboard - an overview (1)

Figure 2. Schematic diagram of medium density fiberboard manufacture.

3.1 Fiber Preparation

MDF fiber is produced from chips and shavings using a pressurized refining system. This is essentially a thermomechanical pulping process. The fiber is actually a collection of fiber bundles and individual wood cells. Hardwood and softwood species will produce substantially different MDF fiber due to the anatomical differences in regard to cell type and density.

3.2 Fiber Blending

Adhesive and wax are added to the fiber either in the refiner or in the blowline. Blowline blending is the most common, and consists of an injection nozzle that is positioned inside the pneumatic duct between the refiner and the dryer. The distribution of the adhesive and the wax is accomplished to some degree by the atomization of the adhesive, but also due to the turbulent flow and mixing that occurs in the blowline after adhesive application. Some MDF plants may use a short-retention-time blender, such as employed for particle blending, instead of the blowline blending method.

3.3 Fiber Drying

Fiber dryers, sometimes called flash-tube or tube dryers, are pneumatic drying systems. Other than the blowers, there are no moving parts. The wet fibers are entrained by the hot drying gases at the inlet of the dryer and pushed through a long tube, approximately 50–100m in length and 1m in diameter. At the end of the dryer the dry fibers are separated from the high velocity air using a cyclone separator. Retention time in the dryer is short enough to prevent cure of the adhesive.

3.4 MDF Forming

MDF mats are formed in a manner similar to particleboard. However, the spreader heads are replaced with felting heads, which break up clumps of fibers before they are deposited onto the conveyor. The mat formation is assisted with the application of a slight vacuum beneath the conveyor. In this case the conveyor is a porous screen, onto which the mat is formed. The vacuum allows the fibers to be filtered out of the air-stream and uniformly deposited on the conveyor. MDF mats are typically formed in three layers.

The remainder of the MDF manufacturing process is similar to particleboard manufacture.

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(Video) About Medium Density Fiberboard


Qiang Yuan, ... Cong Ma, in Civil Engineering Materials, 2021

5.4.5 Fiberboard

The term fiberboard includes hardboard, medium-density fiberboard (MDF), and cellulosic fiberboard. Several things differentiate fiberboard from particleboard, most notably the physical configuration of the wood element. Because wood is fibrous by nature, fiberboard exploits the inherent strength of wood to a greater extent than does particleboard.

To make fibers for composites, bonds between the wood fibers must be broken. Attrition milling, or refining, is the easiest way to accomplish this. During refining, the material is fed between two disks with radial grooves. As the material is forced through the preset gap between the disks, it is sheared, cut, and abraded into fibers and fiber bundles. Refiners are available with single- or double-rotating disks, as well as steam-pressurized and unpressurized configurations.

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Electricity functional composite for building construction

F. Fu, Q. Yuan, in Advanced High Strength Natural Fibre Composites in Construction, 2017 Design and construction of electromagnetic shieldingroom

The copper foils were laminated on the surface of MDF by a hot-pressing process to prepare electromagnetic shielding MDF by the researchers from the Research Institute of Wood Industry (Chinese Academy of Forestry) and Beijing University of Technology. The electromagnetic shielding MDF was then applied to construct a wood-based electromagnetic shielding room (Fig.12.24). The electromagnetic shielding MDF was firstly laid on the roof surface, then the surrounding walls, and finally the ground in accordance with the construction program. The basic steps of the construction process are as follows:

Medium Density Fiberboard - an overview (2)

Figure12.24. Wood-based electromagnetic shielding room.


construction of steel frames;


construction of wood-based materials on the wall;


installation of the electromagnetic shielding wood-based panels;


installation of electromagnetic shielding door and doorframe; and


installation of aluminum-plastic panels and lying of the power.

Overall, SE of the wood-based electromagnetic shielding room reached to 80dB.

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(Video) Manufacturing of Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF)

Carbon dioxide sequestration on composites based on waste wood

Lei Wang, Daniel C.W. Tsang, in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cementitious Construction Materials, 2018 Water absorption and thickness swelling

Although cement-bonded particleboards presented superior dimensional stability during water immersion compared with the pure wood, plywood, and medium-density fiberboard, the water resistance is not desirable compared with normal concrete products. The high water absorption of cement-bonded particleboards is related to the highly hygroscopic property of wood. The lignocellulosic materials are usually composed of cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose. The former two are hydrophilic materials, whereas the lignin is hydrophobic material. The contents of cellulose and hemicellulose in various plant parts are relatively high (Table18.1). Thus wood particles will attract water molecules, resulting in dimension swelling upon water immersion. The mechanical strengths would reduce with the increasing of dimension.

Table18.1. Proportion of cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose in various plant parts (Sixta etal., 2004; Vo and Navard, 2016)

Cellulose (%)Lignin (%)Hemicelluloses (%)
Coir (coconut fruit)36–4341–450.15–0.25
Cotton (hair)82.7–92<22–5.7
Flax (bast fiber)60–812–314–18.6
Hemp (bast fiber)70–783.7–517.9–22
Jute (bast fiber)51–725–1312–20.4
Sisal (bast fiber)43–884–1210–13
Wood (mean values)45–5020–3515–30
Wood cell fibers (dissolving pulp)94–99<22–5

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Building materials

Brenda Vale, in Materials for a Healthy, Ecological and Sustainable Built Environment, 2017

Particle boards, fiberboards, and hardboard

Other boards that make use of small bits of wood are the various forms of particle board (chipboard) and medium-density fiberboard (MDF). These are made from wood chips, sawmill shavings, and sawdust in a glue matrix, the whole being pressed. The board with the biggest wood particles is oriented strand board in which flakes of wood with the grain running in various directions (perhaps more correctly called disoriented strand board since it is the disorientation that gives the board its strength) are pressed together in the glue matrix to make boards ranging from 6 to 18.5mm thick. Strand board is used for flooring, sheathing, and making structural I-beams, particularly in North America. Chipboard (which is not the same as the paper board used for making things like cereal boxes) as the name suggests is made in the same way from smaller bits of waste wood and is often produced in tongue-and-grooved flat sheets for flooring. When covered with other materials, like plastic laminate, it is also used for cupboard carcassing, especially for fitted kitchen units. For MDF (medium-density fiberboard) the soft or hard wood pieces are reduced to fibers in a machine before being combined with the resin and having heat and pressure applied. This makes a fine-grained board that is denser than plywood and particle board that can even be used for making wood cuts. In building it can be used for wall panels but is more likely to be the carcassing for cupboards and units.

The issue with these boards made from timber offcuts and wood fibers is the modern glues as these are what have been implicated in indoor air quality problems (see Part III). Consequently, the search is on for replacement glues that give the same performance, in terms of being waterproof under normal building conditions, and longevity as modern glues but at present the advice might be to use these alternative glues in dry indoor applications but not if the boards are to be used outdoors.

One other common composite wood fiber product is hardboard, known under trade names such as Masonite. Hardboard is made from pulped wood fibers that are compressed under heat into thin sheets, without the use of glue, and is also known as high-density fiber board. The fibers can come from forest and wood waste, and recycled wood materials (Packard Forest Products, 2014). Hardboard is often used in building interiors as a substrate to mask small irregularities in uneven surfaces, usually as a result of age, such as floors which are to be given a further covering of sheet material or nonceramic tiles. Tempered hardboard is treated with linseed oil and heat, which gives it increased moisture and impact resistance (Akers, 1966, p. 140), to the point where it has been used as external cladding, especially in North America. In 1933 a house clad entirely in Masonite was exhibited in the Chicago Century of Progress Exposition (Jandl, 1991, p. 128). Hardboard can also be finished with wood veneer and plastic laminate for a decorative finish.

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Lumber—Calculations to Select Framing and Trim Materials

Sidney M. Levy, in Construction Calculations Manual, 2012

7.12.0 Medium-Density Fiberboard and Hardboard Property Requirements

Product ClassaNominal Thickness (mm)MOR (MPa)MOE (MPa)Internal Bond (MPa)Screw-holding (N)Formaldehyde Emissionb (ppm)
Interior MDF
Exterior MDF
(Video) MDF VS. PLYWOOD (Which Is Better?? Pros + Cons!!)
MD–Exterior adhesive panels shall maintain at least 50% of listed MOR after ASTM D1037–1991, accelerated aging (3.3.4). HD = density > 800 kg/m3 (>50 lb/ft3), MD = density 640 to 800 kg/m3 (40 to 50 lb/ft3), LD = density < 640 kg/m3 (< 40 lb/ft3).
Maximum emission when tested in accordance with ASTM E1333–1990. Standard test method for determining formaldehyde levels from wood products under defined test conditions using a larger chamber (ASTM).

Hardboard Physical Property Requirementsa

Product ClassNormal Thickness (mm)Water Resistance (max avg/panel)Tensile Strength (min avg/panel) (MPa)
Water Absorption Based on Weight (%)Thickness Swelling (%)MOR (min avg/Panel) (MPa)Parallel to SurfacePerpendicular to Surface
AHA 1995a.

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Machining processes for wood-based composite materials

G. Kowaluk, in Machining Technology for Composite Materials, 2012

16.4 Selected machining problems

Although the machining of some wood-based composite materials, such as plywood or OSB, does not pose problems, and requires similar processing operations to solid wood, laminated particleboards or MDF (HDF, LDF) require special treatment. The laminate layer, which fulfils the protective and decorative functions, is hard and brittle, while the supporting layer is much less hard. This leads to fundamental differences in crack propagation between the laminate and supporting layers, which must be taken into account to ensure the high quality of the machined material.

As mentioned above, sawing on circular saws is the most common method of machining wood-based composites. The indicator of the quality of the machining of the laminated panels is the condition of the panel edge. It is important to underline that the saw blade creates panel edges when both entering and leaving the machined panel. Two different problems arise as a result. As the saw blade enters the panel, the cutting edge presses against the laminate layer. The continuity of the laminate is broken when the maximal stresses exceed the laminate strength. According to Palubicki et al. (2008), the modulus of elasticity of a laminate is about 12 GPa, while the modulus of elasticity of the surface layer of particle board is about 3.8GPa. The most problematic scenario is when the part under the laminate is a particle of bark. The modulus of elasticity of this type of particle is only 0.022GPa. As a result, a situation can arise in which the laminate bends, because it is not rigidly supported by the soft bark underneath. Cutting this sort of material can be compared to cutting a hard, rigid chocolate icing on a soft cake: the icing never breaks directly under the cutting edge, but some distance away. To prevent uncontrolled breaking of the laminate, the following rules should always be fulfilled: the edge radius (wear of the tool) (Fig.16.3) should be as small as possible, and a high cutting speed should be maintained (Palubicki et al., 2007). A small edge radius helps to increase the local stresses on a relatively small area. A high cutting speed also favours this phenomenon. To extend the clength of time before the tool needs to be replaced and/or sharpened, Palubicki (2006) has proposed increasing the cutting speed as tool wear progresses.

Medium Density Fiberboard - an overview (3)

Fig.16.3. The quality of the panel’s edge is generated by the circular saw tooth’s side cutting edge.

Another critical situation occurs when the saw blade leaves the machined panel. The forces acting on the laminate layer now try to tear off the material. Although the moved material is supported by a table, the construction of the sawing machine never allows the material close to the rotating tool to be supported. This unsupported area could be improperly divided, and damage to the laminate edge could occur. The solution to this problem is the use of an additional pre-cut saw blade, which is mounted directly before the main tool (Fig.16.4). The pre-cutter rotates in the opposite direction to the main tool, so the material machined by this additional saw blade is pressed into the core of the panel. The height of the cutting layer machined by the pre-cutter is less than 2mm. The role of the pre-cutter is to make a low-depth cut, to divide the material, which could otherwise be damaged by the main tool. The width of the cut mark from the pre-cutter is slightly wider than the width of the main tool cut. This solution has recently been applied in almost all sawing machines used for machining of laminated panels.

Medium Density Fiberboard - an overview (4)

Fig.16.4. The application of the pre-cutter in sawing machines.

During typical milling of wood-based composite materials, especially laminated panels, which generate by far the most problems with regard to achieving proper machining quality, the plane of the tool rotation is parallel to the machined material (except in special processing). The forces working on the outer layers of the panel try to tear off it, rather than bend it, as in the case of sawing. Beer et al. (2002) proved that laminated particleboard is characterized by higher hardness than other wood-based composites, and that crack propagation is rapid. Because of the high hardness of the laminates, the wear of tools machining such materials is also intensive. Due to this, the edges of the tools used for processing such panels are produced from hard materials, such as tungsten carbide or PCD. The high performance level of PCD tools used in the processing of wood-based composites was confirmed by Philbin and Gordon (2005). The difficulty is that these materials are hard and brittle (see Fig.16.5). Because of the extremely dynamic machining process and high cutting speed, a brittle edge such as this can be catastrophically damaged (see Fig.16.6). Thus, the geometry of such tools cannot be the same as that of typical tools made from high speed steel (HSS). The edge angle is higher, and depending on the producer, can be about 55° for edges made from tungsten carbide. As was shown by Kowaluk et al. (2009 b), the edge recession decreases when the edge angle increases.

Medium Density Fiberboard - an overview (5)

Fig.16.5. The dependence between the cutting edge material parameters.

Fig.16.6. Examples of cutting edge catastrophic damage (a, b, c, d).

Such a large edge angle causes extended stresses in the machined material. As long as the edge radius is low, the material can be cut before uncontrolled breaking occurs. With an increase in radius, when the edge recession reaches a certain level, the machined material can break before cutting takes places because of the ‘overtaking crack’ (Kowaluk et al., 2004). This is confirmation of the importance of monitoring tool wear, especially when the machining is carried out at a high feed speed: if the critical wear of the tool is judged incorrectly, unacceptable damage can be caused by the worn-out tool during the rest of the production process (see Fig.16.7).

Medium Density Fiberboard - an overview (7)

Fig.16.7. Effects of laminated particleboard machining with worn tool (a, b).

The development of a new composite based on lignocellulosic raw materials offers promising results in the machining field. Panels produced from alternative raw materials, such as willow, black locust or rape, have a lower friction coefficient than panels produced from industrial chips. Because tool wear is partly caused by friction between the machined material and the tool, the wear intensity of the tools used for machining panels produced from alternative raw materials can be reduced. It was proved (Kowaluk et al., 2007) that panels produced from rape particles caused a lesser degree of wear of the tool, after the same time period, compared with panels produced from industrial particles.

Wood‒plastic composite machining trials were conducted by Buehlmann et al. (2001). The materials investigated were five different commercially available woodfiber‒plastic composites. Solid wood (white pine) was also tested for comparison purposes. The general conclusion drawn from these investigations is that the lowest degree of edge wear is found in solid wood machining. The reason for this is hypothesized to be the contamination content in the wood‒plastic composites, as well as pigments used for plastic coloring.

(Video) What's in MC? Episode 40: Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF)

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Wood: Nonstructural Panels

T. Adcock, M.P. Wolcott, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2001

2.1 Wood—Agricultural Residues

The manufacture of nonstructural wood composite panels is a global industry. As such the species of wood/agricultural fiber used for their production is dependent on available resources and is diverse. For composites such as particleboard, hardboard, and medium-density fiberboard, softwood (gymnosperm) species, namely pine, spruce, and Douglas fir dominate (Composite Panel Association 1999–2000). However, various other softwood/hardwood species, e.g., beech and birch, as well as agricultural crop residues are also regularly used (Composite Panel Association 1999–2000). Generally, panels will not be manufactured from one species alone. Rather a carefully controlled mixture of species will be metered into the production process. An example of the species mix that could be common to a European particleboard manufacturing facility is listed in Table 1.

Table 1. Possible species mix of a European particleboard manufacturing facility.

Wood speciesSpecies proportion %
Sitka and Norway spruce30
Lodgepole, Scots, and Corsican pine25
Radiata pine
Southern pine
European and Japanese larch15
Mixed conifer20
Mixed broadleaf10

Traditionally, the nonveneer wood composites industry has operated on residues from the forest products industry (Maloney 1997). Material of various forms: roundwood, sawmill residues and even recycled wood fiber can be used for panel manufacture. In countries other than the USA, the use of roundwood is common. However, because of their low cost and abundant supply, sawmill residues are the dominant raw material in the USA (Maloney 1997). As technology has advanced, and fears have grown over deforestation, crop stubble burning, and other environmental issues, the use of agricultural residues as an alternative feedstock for nonveneer composite panels has also increased. Currently, crop residues such as wheat straw, bagasse (sugar extracted sugar cane), or ryegrass straw are all being used in the production of nonstructural wood composites. Irrespective of the form or species of the raw material to be used, various stages of furnish preparation are required before panel production is possible.

The decorative plywood industry is not able to make use of material gathered from sawmills, recycling schemes, or agricultural residue. Veneer peeled from solid timber is the mainstay of the industry. However, the species of this timber is still very much dependent on the resources available to the manufacturer, and will, therefore, vary throughout the world.

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Polymers for a Sustainable Environment and Green Energy

G. Crapper, in Polymer Science: A Comprehensive Reference, 2012 New substrates

Development of lower curing powder coatings will progressively open up access to thermally sensitive substrates that have traditionally been coated with liquid paints. This will signal a new phase of liquid-to-powder conversions, with substrates such as:

MDF used for furniture;

thermally sensitive alloys from a range of applications such as large car wheels, aerospace components, and ultralight computers and PDAs being typical applications where today a conventional bake powder coating leads to metallurgical damage;

composite plastic components used to lighten automotives or to replace more energy-intensive substrates such as aluminum; and

the ultimate technical challenge will be to be able to coat thermoplastic parts that have low softening points, low surface energy, and smooth surfaces.


What are 5 disadvantages of MDF? ›

What are the downsides of MDF?
  • Engineered wood is easy to damage. One of the main differences between solid and engineered wood is the surface. ...
  • MDF is heavier. ...
  • MDF is vulnerable to extreme heat Remember that engineered wood is made out of wax and/or resin-like compounds. ...
  • MDF can't support too much weight.
Nov 9, 2017

What is medium density fiberboard used for? ›

MDF is well damped acoustically, thus making it a suitable material for speaker enclosures. MDF is widely used in the manufacturing of furniture, kitchen cabinets, moldings, millwork, door parts, and laminate flooring.

Is MDF a good material? ›

Medium density fiberboard (MDF) performs much better than real wood in at least some areas. It is a composite material of high quality. MDF is made from resin and recycled wood fibers. It is pressed to produce dense sheets that remain stable in all weather conditions.

What is the description of MDF? ›

Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF) is an engineered wood-based sheet material made by bonding together wood fibres with a synthetic resin adhesive. MDF is extremely versatile and can be machined and finished to a high standard.

Where should you not use MDF? ›

There are a few areas where MDF should never be used – kitchen or bathroom cabinets and trim in the bathrooms. These are the two areas we see the most failure because of moisture. Window sills are also problematic if the windows have any sort of condensation or leaking problems.

Is MDF stronger than plywood? ›

When it comes to strength, plywood is the winner. MDF is a softer material than plywood and tends to sag or split under pressure. That's why it's important to reinforce it if you're going to using it to build shelves or other weight-bearing furniture.

Is MDF better than plywood? ›

MDF board would be the best option if you want a low budget and material for interior application. If you want material for an exterior application that can withstand moisture, then plywood is the best option.

Does MDF hold screws well? ›

MDF panels hold screws as well as most natural woods, but drill a pilot hole first. You also can join this wood composite with spiral grooved dowels, coated staples, and ring shank nails.

What happens if MDF gets wet? ›

However, if you have a project in a high-humidity area, you must use or create water-resistant MDF, or the material will start to disintegrate if consistently exposed to water and damp conditions.

Should you avoid MDF? ›

The main concern regarding the health risks of MDF is the use of urea-formaldehyde adhesives as the bonding agent during the creation of the panels. Formaldehyde has been thought to have cancer risks. However, studies linking cancer to formaldehyde have not been conclusive.

How long does MDF board last? ›

The durability of MDF depends on the quality of the product. A cheap MDF board might only last one year before breaking down. On the other hand, high-quality MDF could last up to 10 years.

What are the pros and cons of MDF? ›

It is a dimensionally stable wood product. – MDF holds better to hinges and screws thanks to its high density. – MDF is easy to stain and apply colour, unlike natural wood which takes a long time to stain. – Thanks to its smooth edges, MDF can easily be cut and carved into different designs.

How long does MDF last? ›

The durability of MDF depends on the quality of the product. A cheap MDF board might only last one year before breaking down. On the other hand, high-quality MDF could last up to 10 years.

Which is better MDF or plywood? ›

MDF board would be the best option if you want a low budget and material for interior application. If you want material for an exterior application that can withstand moisture, then plywood is the best option.

Is MDF cancerous? ›

MDF board is a timber product made from hardwood and softwood fibres that are glued together with wax and a resin adhesive containing urea-formaldehyde. Both wood dust and formaldehyde are Group 1 carcinogens.

Is MDF still toxic? ›

In conclusion, we would just like to reiterate that while may MDF carry a tiny fraction of harmful substances, it is completely safe. The concentration of Formaldehyde in it is well below the safety line and we ensure ample measures to ensure minimal to no emissions.

Is MDF the new asbestos? ›

There is absolutely no relationship between the dust generated from a product such as MDF, which typically comprises 80 per cent virgin softwood fibre, and the definite hazards associated with asbestos fibre.


1. Manufacturing of a Fiberboard
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